Alabaster - Dense, granular variety of Gypsum. White, yellow, orange to brown. (Hardness 1.5 - 2.5)
Alunite - Hydrous potassium aluminum sulfate. White, yellow, grey or red. (3.5 - 4)
Amber - Amorphous organic fossilized resin. Generally yellow, orange to brown. (2 - 2.5)
Amazonite - Blue-green variety of Microcline - Potassium aluminum silicate. (6 - 6.5)
Ammonite - Fossil of a (usually spiraled) Cephalopod which lived through the Cretaceous period.
Angelite - Trade name for blue variety of mineral anhydrite. (3 - 3.5)
Anhydrite - Translucent or transparent mineral with pearly luster. White, grey or reddish. (3 - 3.5)
Antler - Branched horns of deer family. Ancient organic medium. White to brownish. (2.5)
Art Glass - Most common type of glass used to carve Zuni fetishes. (See Gold Slag) (6)
Azurite - Blue secondary copper mineral in sulfide deposits. Often associated with Malachite. (3.5 - 4)
Bone - Sometimes young carvers are taught to carve on bone. Organic, whitish to white. (app. 2)
Boulder Opal - Opal found within very hard ironstone concretions of varying shapes and sizes.
Calcite - Transparent to opaque, calcium carbonate. Varied colors include yellow, orange and blue. (3)
Calsilica - Trade name for rainbow-colored material of unknown origin (rumored to be tile slag).
Coral - Organic, calcified skeletons of tiny sea animals. Whitish, pink, orange and red. (3 - 4)
Dolomite Mineral - Calcium magnesium carbonate. Light grey, yellow, orange and pink. (4)
Dolomite Rock - Sedimentary rock. Light grey, yellow, orange and pink. (3 - 4)
Fluorite - Calcium fluoride. Transparent to transluscent. Clear, purple, green and more. (4)
Gaspeite - Green mineral from oxidation of nickel-rich rock. Name from Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec. (4 - 5)
Gold Slag - Trade name for glass gold-mining byproduct which is usually red.
Gypsum - Sedimentary evaporate mineral. Hydrated Calcium sulfate. Clear, white to brown. (2)
Hickoryite - Type of Rhyolite igneous rock. Whitish, yellow, orange to brown.
Ivory (Fossil) - Organic ancient ivory that has been preserved, usually by cold. Creamy to brown. (2 - 3)
Jasper - White, grey, red, brown or black sedimentary rock. Components mainly Chalcedony and Quartz.
Jet - Organic bituminous coal which takes a good polish. Ancient medium. Silvery, brown or black. (2.5)
Labradorite - Sometimes strongly irridescent Silicate mineral in the Feldspar group. Density is variable.
Lapis Lazuli - Complex blue aggregate rock of mostly hauynite, sodalite, noselite and lazurite. (5 - 6)
Lepidolite - Pink to lilac silicate. Transluscent with pearly luster. Soft to semi-hard. (2.5 - 4)
Limestone - Sedimentary rock of primarily calcite. Often the matrix rock for fossils. Color varible. (3)
Magnesite - Magnesium carbonate. Transluscent or transparent. Clear, white, yellow to brown. (3.5 - 4.5)
Malachite - Hydrous copper carbonate. Often banded structure in light to dark emerald green. (3.5 - 4)
Marble - Metamorphic rock grading from Calcite to Dolomite. White, green, brown, grey to black. (3 - 5.5)
Obsidian - Glassy type of Rhyolite igneous rock which is often transluscent. Brown to black.
Onyx - Transluscent variety of Travertine that takes a good polish. Colorless, yellow to brown. (3 - 4)
Opal - Hydrous silicon oxide. Most often colorless or milky white with splendid irridescence. (5.5 - 6.5)
Orthoceras - Fossil of a (usually straight) Cephalopod which lived through the Devonian period.
Petoskey Stone - Fossilized colony coral that lived during the Devonian Period.
Pipestone - Reddish-brown variety of sedimentary rock Argillite (aka Catlinite). (2 - 3)
Pyrite - Iron sulfide. Compact granular aggregates. Opaque with bright metallic luster. (6 - 6.5)
Rhodochrosite - Transluscent, light to dark pink manganese carbonate mineral. (4)
Rhyolite - Igneous light colored rock (except obsidian). Components include Quartz and Feldspar.
Sandstone - Consolidated sedimentary rock made of very small particles usually cemented by Quartz.
Selenite - Sedimentary rock. Colorless, transparent variety of Gypsum. (1.5 - 2)
Septarian Nodule - Geode with calcite and aragonite crystals. (3 - 4)
Serpentine - Group of Phyllosilicate minerals including Antigorite, Chrisotile and Lizardite. (2.5 - 4)
Shell (Mother of Pearl) - Abalone, Green Snail, Spiney Oyster, Gold lip and more. Ancient medium.
Soapstone (Steatite) - Soft, compact light green, pink or greyish variety of the silicate mineral Talc. (1)
Sodalite - Sodium aluminum silicate chloride. Transluscent white to dark blue mineral. (5.5 - 6)
Tagua Nut - Organic "Vegetable Ivory" from the Tagua Nut Palm. Whitish to milky brown. (app. 2.5)
Travertine - Sedimentary rock of calcite or argonite, with limonite impurities (frequent fossils). (3 - 4)
Turquoise - Copper mineral containing aluminum phosphate. Sky-blue, blue-green to apple-green. (5 - 6)
Variscite - Hydrated aluminum phosphate mineral. Yellowish-green to bluish-green. (4 - 5)
Wonderstone - Utah igneous rock of Rhyolitic composition. Tan, yellow, brown to maroon.
Zuni Rock (Zuni Stone) - Grey, tan to brownish orange Travertine from Zuni Pueblo. (3 - 4)
Amorphous - Mineral-like material which is noncrystalline (e.g. Amber)
Dendrite - Skeletal crystals usually found on the fracture surface of a rock.
Geode - Roundish cavity of crystalized minerals in a sedimentary rock.
Hardness - The resistance of a mineral to scratching and abrasion (see Mohs scale).
Igneous - Solidified from a molten state.
Iridescence - The light phenomenon associated with the play of colors from a mineral surface.
Labradorescence - Typical iridescence of labradorite feldspar.
Luster - A reflective property of mineral surfaces.
Matrix - A substance within which something is contained or develops.
Metamophic - Formed by great heat and pressure.
Mineral - Natural inorganic substance with a definite chemical composition/characteristic physical structure.
Mohs scale - Relative scale of the hardness of minerals, arbitrarily reading from 1(talc) to 10(diamond).
Organic substance - Relating to, or derived from living organisms.
Opaque - Impenetrable by light.
Rock - Natural aggregates of one or more minerals.
Sedimentary - Formed from materials that settle to the bottom of a liquid.
Trade name - Name by which a material is known to the trade.
Translucent - Transmitting light but diffusing it sufficiently to cause images to become blurred.
Transparent - Capable of transmitting light so that objects on the other side can be seen.